Reading this article from the University of Illinois Extension helped me get a better idea of what might be going on. I did some research on various cards that work in the garden specifically, and ordered some Universal Insect Monitor Cards. They have two sides, one yellow and one blue, both sticky. They also have a grid to help monitor the buggers.
Here's a card by my blue lake beans
Poor kale! :(
Card by the sunflower
If y'all have any tips or suggestions on what else I could do in the meantime, it would be much appreciated! Fingers crossed we catch these little buggers!